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The education system in UK

 The education system in UK

The education system in UK is a clear difference from nursery school to university
Education in UK is supervised by the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Skills, and local authorities are responsible for implementing public education policies and government schools at the local level.

The education system in UK is divided into early years (ages 3 to 4), primary education (ages 4 to 11), secondary education (ages 11 to 18), and higher education (ages older than 18). A year).

UK in brief

Location and position: UK is made up of three territories: England, Wales and Scotland, in addition to Northern Ireland. It is located in southwestern Europe off the northwest coast of the European continent.

It was called the Lady of the Old World or Great UK, because it was considered in the nineteenth century the first maritime and industrial power in the world, and the British were able to control nearly a quarter of the world’s area, but this power declined after the First and Second World Wars.

UK emerged as a great power after the defeat of France in the Napoleonic Wars, and it continued as a pre-eminent power until the mid-twentieth century, after the emergence of the United States on the world stage.

In the second half of the eighteenth century, UK witnessed a massive industrial revolution that led to the development of all areas of life, including education, industry and commerce.

Characteristics of education in UK

Education democracy .. where the school administration and teachers are given the freedom to organize the school, and all individuals are given equal opportunities in academic achievement regardless of religion, color, gender, social class

Stratification in school education .. There is special education for the children of the revolutionary class, and there is good education that is provided to the general public.

Compulsory public education .. General school education in UK is characterized by the long period of compulsory education that reaches 11 years

Emphasis on practical, applied aspects, as the industrial revolution in UK since the eighteenth century has brought about tremendous changes in the education system, represented by the shift of programs and curricula from the theoretical side to the practical applied side.

Moderation in diversity .. This is due to the educational policy that combines centralization and decentralization in the country's system of government

Popular responsibility for education .. The people, with their various institutions, actively contribute to the management and supervision of education, and this is due to the prevalence of the democratic pattern in political life with respect and appreciation of all individuals.

Providing religious education .. UK includes in its demographics different races and races carrying various religions and philosophies, which prompted the educational system to provide formal religious education in public schools.

The freedom of private and sectarian schools .. The educational authorities do not put any obstacles in the way of establishing these schools, but rather support them and make them part of the educational system.

 Stages of education in UK

First: Pre-primary education

Students from the age of (3-5) years receive a free stage, but it is not mandatory, and it varies in terms of the agency supervising it and the institutions attached to it.

Its curricula are flexible and diversified with the aim of preparing the child for learning and training him to practice proper social behavior

There are usually no more than forty children in children's schools with a large number of qualified professionals.

Education authorities require that all staff be female

The teaching methods used for children are learning by playing, singing and hearing meaningful stories

Second: Primary education

primary education Consists of  two parts :
  1. Children’s Schools (5-7)
  2. Primary schools (7-11)

Free and compulsory, which is the beginning of the compulsory stage in the British education system.

Various study programs that include religious education, and aim to prepare good citizens

There are no binding books, and the school and teachers specify textbooks and teaching methods

Teaching depends on how students are encouraged to research and innovate, not merely on memorization and indoctrination

This stage ends with a test known as (+11)

The whole day system where the child spends about seven hours in school every day, which starts from nine o'clock until three thirty

The school bears full responsibility for education, as exams are reduced to reduce psychological pressure on children, and homework is also reduced in order to respect the rights of the child.

Automatic promotion for students, there is no failure, and if the child's level is below the level of his peers, he is transferred with them with special care.

Each school adopts its own curriculum, and the curricula generally focus on research and encourage reading, especially reading meaningful stories

Third: Secondary education

According to Butler's Law, the period of high school studies extends from the age of eleven to eighteen, and is divided into two parts:

  1. Ordinary secondary school .. Its duration is five years, at which point the compulsory education stage ends.
  2. High school .. The duration of the study is two years, and it is required to obtain it for university study.

Secondary education in UK consists of four types of schools that differ in terms of student admission policy, and they come in order:

1- General Secondary School (Academic)

It is the oldest type of secondary school in UK and has a great social status for historical reasons.

It is based on a selection policy, whereby it accepts the elite from students who represent approximately 20% of the number of students studying academic subjects.

The student obtains the secondary certificate at its normal level if it stops at the first five years, and upon completion of the next two years, he obtains the high school diploma.

2- Technical Secondary School

It also has a great reputation and gets a percentage of the best students who pass the entrance examination, to which students with artistic tendencies are enrolled.

The school offers theoretical subjects in addition to the professional and technical subjects of industries and crafts, and this school prepares its students for higher technical studies.

3- Modern High School

This type of school was established under the Butler Act in 1944, and ordinary students attend them at their achievement levels.

The curriculum combines theoretical and professional subjects, in addition to secretarial and management courses.

It suffers from some problems such as the low level of education, due to the different abilities of pupils, the weak level of teachers, and the lack of educational services.

This type of school declined in the face of the wide spread of comprehensive secondary schools, as it became the common type of secondary education in UK.

4- Comprehensive high school

This type now represents the modern form developed in British secondary education and which the Labor Party builds.

The comprehensive school accepts all students without discrimination, regardless of their preferences, abilities and levels.

The comprehensive school offers various academic and professional study programs.

The comprehensive school achieves equal opportunities for all and eliminates social disparities.

Management and supervision of education

UK is one of the capitalist countries that sanctify individual freedom, and this principle had an impact on educational administration, as the opportunity was given to multiple parties to supervise and manage education.

The education administration in UK combines centralization and decentralization, and this in turn has led to a moderate diversity of educational systems and a multiplicity of school types, and to achieve equal opportunities for all individuals.

The Butler Act represents the epitome of education reforms in UK, and this law gave the final character to the education system, by organizing the distribution of education supervision responsibilities between the government and local authorities.

The role of the Ministry of Education

The central authority is represented by the Ministry of Education, which is represented by the Minister of Education and is responsible to Parliament and cannot enact laws until after they are approved by Parliament.

A body that includes Her Majesty's inspectors will assist the Minister in following up on educational policy, inspect schools and advise the Ministry on matters of education.

The Minister assists the Education Advisory Council as well as other independent bodies and is assisted by the directors and agents of the local authorities.

She is responsible for developing the education plan, establishing schools and colleges, maintaining schools and providing services to students, and appointing teachers and the school principal.

The Director of Education and Local Education manages and finances education in his region within the general framework determined by the educational legislation and instructions of the Ministry of Education.

The voluntary organizations and the Teachers Union continue to draw up educational policy in the country.

Education funding

The central authority, through the aid provided by the Ministry of Education, is 60%.

Local taxes collected by local authorities and cover 40% of educational expenses.